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Laravel Design Patterns and Best Practices


What is Laravel?

Laravel, a renowned PHP web framework, is expressive and elegant. Created by Taylor Otwell, it’s not just a free and open-source web development framework, but is also designed to simplify tasks for developers, allowing room for creativity without the constraints of minor hurdles. Just like other popular platforms such as Magento or Drupal, it’s widely recognized for its contributing role in shaping the world of custom website creation.

Importance of Design Patterns and Best Practices

Design patterns and best practices in Laravel are like the North Star for developers. Getting to grips with these, such as the facade design pattern, offers a simplified and unified interface for complicated subsystems. Aside from that, the adapter pattern enables components with disparate interfaces to cooperate, essentially facilitating integration with external APIs. Nevertheless, it’s crucial to understand that utilizing the adapter design might impact the code’s transparency. Implementing these patterns, such as coding OOP methods, dynamically optimize performance, enhance security, and ensure the smooth handling of web applications. Essential resources like the “Arda Kilicdagi book” can provide invaluable insights into these practices. In essence, adhering to these patterns and practices bring clarity and scalability to your Laravel projects while leveraging Laravel’s widespread use of the Facade design pattern.

Best Practices for Laravel Development

Always Use the Latest Version

Embrace novelty with the latest Laravel versions. They bring around a bundle of benefits – heightened security, faster performance, and advanced features. For instance, Laravel 9.x, released in February 2022, revamped various functionalities such as anonymous class migrations, revamped route list design, and more. Thus, staying updated with Laravel is a shining best practice.

Adhere to the Coding Standards

Adhering to the PSR-2 and PSR-4 coding standards in Laravel keeps your code tidy and clear. PSR-2 sets a unified PHP code format, while PSR-4 manages autoloading classes from the file path. Consistent coding avoids confusion and enhances readability. Tools like GrumPHP can aid in meeting these standards.

Use Helper Functions

Why forge your PHP helpers when Laravel provides a litter of them! Helper functions, such as the Str class methods in Illuminate/Support/Str, not only simplify your coding journey but are quintessential in the web design and APIs’ realm. For instance, $id = Str::random(24); delivers a random, 24-characters long string. These ready-made tools, perfectly adapted to work in conjunction with external APIs, are flexible, easily callable, and save significant coding time. They act as your trusted Laravel assistant in establishing a centralized data access logic, further simplifying the switching between several data sources like databases and APIs. By the end of your Laravel journey, you will be acquainted with Laravel’s stellar design patterns and best practices.

Follow the Single Responsibility Principle

Single Responsibility Principle is a crucial aspect of the SOLID principles in Laravel. This principle ensures that every class and method holds just one responsibility. Like the cogs of a well-oiled machine, it eases software implementation and guarantees a conflict-free future. It promotes a clean, maintainable, and adaptable codebase. Here’s a quick example:

public function getTransactionAttribute(): bool{
return $this->isVerified() ? $this->getReference() : $this->getPaymentLink();

public function isVerified(): bool{
return $this->transaction && ($transaction->type == 'withdrawal') && $this->transaction->isVerified();

public function getReference(): string{
return ['reference'=>$this->transaction->reference, 'status'=>'verified'];

public function getPaymentLink(): string{
return ['link'=>$this->transaction->paymentLink, 'status'=>'not verified'];

Use Artisan CLI

The Artisan CLI, Laravel’s wonder-tool, helps you navigate smoothly through web development. Its integration with the Symfony Console Component and inbuilt devops practices enhance the efficiency of scheduled tasks and trigger actions on events. Whether it’s amalgamating all configurations into a single cohesive file using the php artisan config: cache, optimizing the autoloader with php artisan optimize, or executing any other command, it guarantees to expedite your development speed. An example of how to fire an Artisan command from HTTP route in a devops environment is:

Route::get('/foo', function(){ $exitCode = Artisan::call('command:name'), ['==option' => 'foo']);//});

Route::get('/foo', function(){

$exitCode = Artisan::call('command:name'), ['==option' => 'foo']);//});

An Artisan-crafted Laravel project, bolstered with devops, ensures optimal performance.

Use Request Classes for Validation

Leverage the power of Laravel’s Request classes for validation. They hold the capability of executing methods, for instance, public function rules(). Request classes cleanse the form request, embodying the validation logic separately.

Recommended Template:

public function store(CreateArticleRequest $request){ //..code }

class CreateArticleRequest extends Request{

public function rules(): array{

return [

'slug' => 'required', 'title' => 'required|unique:posts|max:255', 'body' => 'required',

'flImage' => ['image', 'required', 'mimes:png,jpg,jpeg,gif']


} }

Not recommended:

public function store(Request $request){

'slug' => 'required', 'title' => 'required|unique:posts|max:255',

'body' => 'required', 'flImage' => ['image', 'required', 'mimes:png,jpg,jpeg,gif']



Separating validation logic using Request classes enhances readability and helps keep code organized.

Use Timeout HTTP Request

Avoid getting hung up with Laravel’s Timeout HTTP Request feature. When a network gets unreliable, Laravel times out after 30 seconds. To bypass this limitation and prevent the application from hanging in case of long delays, use the timeout feature.

Here’s an example of a timeout HTTP request:

public function makeRequest(CreateArticleRequest $request){
$response = Http::timeout(120)->get();

In this instance, the request would time out after 120 seconds, preventing indefinite hanging of the application and generating an error instead, giving you more control over your application behavior.

Avoid Using Environment (.env) Variables Directly in Your Code

Environment variables control the behavior of running processes on computers. However, using them directly in your Laravel code is akin to walking on thin ice. The risk is similar to casually browsing a website without checking its credibility. External variables can override your ‘.env’ file without breaking a sweat, much like a quick checkout as guest on an unsecured e-commerce site. Instead, refresh your approach and sign in to access them using the config() helper function. For example:

A safe search browse to code:

// config/api.php 'key' => env('API_KEY'), // Use the data
$apiKey = config('api.key');

// config/api.php

'key' => env('API_KEY'),

// Use the data

$apiKey = config('api.key');

The risky path akin to an unchecked add to cart:

$apiKey = env('API_KEY');

$apiKey = env('API_KEY');

Adopting this practice ensures a stable and secure Laravel project just as adding a reliable product to your watchlist ensures a satisfying purchase.

Understanding SOLID Principles in Laravel

Single Responsibility Principle

The Single Responsibility Principle (SRP), part of the SOLID paradigm, is a cornerstone of good Laravel development. SRP states that each class and function should have only one job. This decouples code modules, resulting in an easier-to-maintain, more stable system. Essentially, if all parts of your Laravel app are designed to do one thing well, the whole tends to thrive. A well-organised Laravel’s code following SRP looks something like this:

public function isVerified(): bool{
return $this->transaction &&
($this->transaction->type == 'withdrawal') &&

public function getReference(): string{
return ['reference'=>$this->transaction->reference,

public function getPaymentLink(): string{
return ['link'=>$this->transaction->paymentLink,
'status'=>'not verified'];

Each function in this example has one, and only one, responsibility. Consequently, each can be tested, understood, and changed in isolation.

Open/Closed Principle

Open/Closed Principle (OCP) is a pivotal part of the SOLID principles in Laravel. It indicates that classes should be open for extension but closed for modification. This enables the application to introduce fresh functionalities without altering the existing code. It upholds the modularity of the code, boosting scalability and maintainability. Here’s an example showcasing the Open/Closed Principle:

class Discount{
public function apply($price){

return $price - 50;



class SaleDiscount extends Discount{

public function apply($price){

return parent::apply($price) - 30;



In this example, we’ve extended the Discount class to create the SaleDiscount class, adding new functionality without changing the parent. Hence, following the Open/Closed Principle is all about balancing stability and progress.

Liskov Substitution Principle

The Liskov Substitution Principle (LSP) is an essential pillar of the SOLID principles, enhancing the badge of Laravel’s Best Practices. It decrees that derived classes must entirely substitute their parent classes. This principle ensures handling objects without breaking the application. Using incorrect types could cause fatal errors or unpredictable results. Following is an example of how to properly implement LSP:

class Bird {
public function fly(){}

class Duck extends Bird {}

class Ostrich extends Bird {

public function fly(){
throw new Exception("Can't fly");


Here, Ostrich can’t replace Bird in every case because it can’t fly. It violates LSP, throwing an exception. Thus, always ensure the substitutability of classes. This increases flexibility and interoperability in your Laravel applications.

Interface Segregation Principle

The Interface Segregation Principle (ISP) advises that overlarge interfaces should be divided into smaller ones. ISP stresses that a client should never be coerced into implementing an interface it doesn’t use. It facilitates a high cohesion design while preventing unnecessary coupling, leading to more maintainable and understandability. Here’s an example:

Interface AnimalActions {
public function fly();

public function swim();

public function run();


Class Duck implements AnimalActions {

public function fly()...

public function swim()...

public function run()...


Class Ostrich implements AnimalActions {

public function fly()...// Ostrich can't fly

public function swim()...// Ostrich can't swim

public function run()...


Here, ISP violation is crystal clear. Both Duck and Ostrich implement the AnimalActions interface. However, Ostrich can’t fly or swim, but it’s forced to provide implementation, resulting in clumsy code. The cleaner way would be creating separate interfaces. Thus, segregation leads to better organization in Laravel projects.

Dependency Inversion Principle

Dependency Inversion Principle (DIP) circling the SOLID principles enforces high-level modules to not depend on low-level modules. Instead, both should lean on abstractions. Moreover, abstractions should not hinge on details, but details should depend on abstractions. Following DIP reduces coupling, enhances modularity, and lends high flexibility.

Here’s how DIP is implemented:

class User {
private $dbConnection;

public function __construct(DatabaseConnectionInterface $dbConnection) {

$this->dbConnection = $dbConnection;


public function getAll() {

return $this->dbConnection->get('users');



In this example, the User class does not rely on a low-level MySQLConnection or SQLiteConnection; instead, it relies on an abstraction (DatabaseConnectionInterface). Embedding the Dependency Inversion Principle in your Laravel development process takes you one step closer to crafting resilient applications.

Laravel Design Patterns Deep Dive

Factory Design Pattern

The Factory Design Pattern in Laravel is an aircraft that abstracts the object creation process. Adding a layer of abstraction, it effectively becomes a sort of ‘repository’ for object creation. It provides an interface for creating objects but allows subclasses to tweak the creation. Separating the usage from the creation of objects, it keeps the code modular, adaptable, and testable by constructing mock repositories for unit testing. This pattern is often used in conjunction with Dependency Injection to aid in creating complex objects. The Factory Pattern thrives in scenarios where the type of objects needs to be decided at runtime. Here’s an illustration:

class BirdFactory { public static function build ($type){ $class = "App\\Birds\\" . $type; if(class_exists($class)){ return new $class; } else { throw new Exception("Invalid bird type."); } } } $bird = BirdFactory::build('Sparrow');
class BirdFactory {
public static function build ($type){

$class = "App\\Birds\\" . $type;


return new $class;

} else {

throw new Exception("Invalid bird type.");




$bird = BirdFactory::build('Sparrow');

In this example, BirdFactory’s build method accepts a string and uses it to create a class of that type. If the class doesn’t exist, it throws an exception. The Factory design pattern, acting as a repository, is widely utilized in Laravel for making the coding process targeted, flexible, and testable.

Strategy Design Pattern

The Strategy Design Pattern in Laravel is a smart way to create objects with different behaviours. It’s an effective strategy to separate an object’s behaviour from its implementation, enhancing modularity and reusability. Crucial for runtime behavioural changes, the Strategy pattern is instrumental in implementing various caching strategies in Laravel.

Check out this assay of the Strategy pattern:

interface CacheStrategy {
public function cache(string $key, $value);


class FileCacheStrategy implements CacheStrategy {

public function cache(string $key, $value) { /* Add cache in file */ }


class DatabaseCacheStrategy implements CacheStrategy {

public function cache(string $key, $value) { /* Add cache in DB */ }


class CacheContext {

private $cacheStrategy;

public function __construct(CacheStrategy $cacheStrategy) {

$this->cacheStrategy = $cacheStrategy;


public function cache(string $key, $value) {

return $this->cacheStrategy->cache($key, $value);



$cacheContext = new CacheContext(new FileCacheStrategy());

$cacheContext->cache('test', 'value');

In this illustration, CacheStrategy is an interface declared for all caching techniques. FileCacheStrategy and DatabaseCacheCacheStrategy are classes that provide distinct caching strategy implementations. The CacheContext class, on the other hand, serves as the context that encompasses a particular caching strategy.

Always remember, infusing Laravel with the Strategy design pattern makes your projects a cut above the rest, enhancing their plasticity and robustness.

Singleton Design Pattern

The Singleton Design Pattern locks the doors to duplicate entries. In Laravel, it restricts a class to a single instance only – that’s why it’s called Singleton. Singleton puts a leash on class instantiation, ensuring uniform data and resource access, thus maintaining consistency across your Laravel applications. It is mostly utilized to organize logging or database connections or to handle shared resources.

Here’s an instance of the Singleton pattern in Laravel:

class Singleton {
private static $instance; // Hold the class instance.

private function __construct() {} // make the constructor private

public static function getInstance() {

if (null === static::$instance) {

static::$instance = new static();


return static::$instance;



$firstCall = Singleton::getInstance();

$secondCall = Singleton::getInstance();

var_dump($firstCall === $secondCall); // returns true

In this example, the getInstance() method ensures that only one instance of the Singleton class exists. Thus, the Singleton design pattern in Laravel helps maintain order in the sea of objects and instances.

Securing Your Laravel Application

Laravel Validation

Laravel Validation is your first line of defense against ridiculous and wrong data. Laravel’s robust validation services offer convenient ways to validate incoming data, keeping your peace of mind intact. Using Laravel’s dedicated classes for requests, you can streamline sanity checks and make your code leaner.

For example, instead of putting validation in your controller (not recommended):

public function store(Request $request) {

'title' => 'required|unique:posts|max:255',

//more validators



You can create a dedicated Request class (recommended):

public function store(CreateArticleRequest $request){

// Code


class CreateArticleRequest extends Request{

public function rules(): array {

return [

'slug' => 'required',

'title' => 'required|unique:posts|max:255',

// more rules




This approach not only organizes the code but also allows validation logic to be reused across different parts of the application. That is why Laravel’s Validation should be at the core of your best practices.

Using Middleware to Protect Your Application

In Laravel, Middleware acts like a doorman, authorizing and rejecting requests. It filters HTTP requests, securing your application from unauthorized access or malicious activities. Middleware ensures that only verified requests reach your application, preserving its integrity and security.

Here is an example of how to create a middleware in Laravel:

php artisan make:middleware CheckAge
public function handle($request, Closure $next){
if ($request->age <= 20) {

return redirect('home');


return $next($request);


In this case, the CheckAge middleware stops users aged 20 or under from accessing specific web routes. Using middleware in Laravel is a reliable way to armor your application against threats and inconsistencies.

Secure Laravel API Development

Secure Laravel API development is instrumental in protecting data transactions within your application. Laravel’s features like CSRF Protection, Route Model Binding, and Eloquent ORM offer seamless API development while maintaining stellar security. Laravel Passport, a comprehensive OAuth2 server implementation, is excellent for API authentication.

Here’s how you would set up an API token in Laravel:

$token = $user->createToken('auth-token')->plainTextToken;

When making future requests for authenticated routes, the token is passed into the Bearer Token field in the Authentication header:

Authorization: Bearer {token}

Always remember, a well-secured Laravel API is the backbone of any reliable Laravel web application. It ensures the integrity and privacy of your valuable data.

Optimizing Your Laravel Projects in 2023

Leveraging Laravel Service Container for Class Dependencies

The Laravel Service Container is the Avengers of class dependencies. It’s a powerful tool for managing class dependencies and handling dependency injection. It allows you to “inject” any binding into a method of a class dynamically, whether that class is retrieved from the service container or not, simplifying the coding effort immensely.

Here’s how you would bind an interface to an implementation:




Later, when you inject EventPusher into a method, the Service Container will automatically insert the correct RedisEventPusher implementation.

Remember, leveraging the Service Container is an elegant method of managing dependencies in Laravel, keeping your code neat and maintainable.

Exploring Custom Rule Validation in Laravel 10

Custom Rule Validation allows you, a Laravel developer, to forge validation rules suiting your needs. Laravel 10 introduced some additional functionalities to improve the custom rule validation process – custom rules can specify their placeholders now. You can create a custom rule either using a closure or by creating a Rule object. The Rule object allows more complex validations and even includes the feature of asynchronous validation!

A simple example of a custom rule using closure:

'title' => [



function ($attribute, $value, $fail) {

if ($value === 'invalid title') {

$fail($attribute.' is invalid.');





A more complex example using Rule object:

use Illuminate\Contracts\Validation\Rule;

class Uppercase implements Rule


public function passes($attribute, $value)


return strtoupper($value) === $value;


public function message()


return ':attribute must be uppercase';



Creating custom rules lets you tailor Laravel’s validation process as per your requirements, thus making Laravel an even more flexible framework.

In Conclusion

Final thoughts on Laravel Design Patterns and Best Practices

In closing, Laravel Design Patterns and Best Practices are the wind under a Laravel developer’s wings. They streamline the development process, guard against common pitfalls, and ultimately produce more robust, scalable, and optimally performing Laravel applications. From utilizing Laravel’s Eloquent ORM for easier data handling to SOLID principles, each pattern, and practice adds a brick to your tower of proficiency. Make sure to wield these to your advantage. They will be your ladder to Laravel’s mastery, accomplishing what you initially thought was unreachable.

Continuing Laravel Learning and Community Engagement

Remember, learning Laravel is a lively marathon, not a sabre-rattling sprint. Not only should you stay updated with Laravel’s latest versions, but also engage with Laravel’s vibrant community. Join the forums like Laracasts,, and Laravel subreddit. Participating in conversations, raising queries, answering others’ doubts, sharing your projects, or even blogging about your Laravel journey can sharpen your skills. You’ll gain insights, learn new techniques, and be better prepared to conquer any Laravel challenge that comes your way. So, keep coding, learning, and growing in your Laravel’s journey.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the purpose of design patterns in Laravel?

Design patterns in Laravel serve as panaceas to recurring software development issues. They can be seen as time-proven solutions to common programming problems. Laravel’s design patterns boost code reusability, making your code modular and adaptable. They help to structure your code in a manner that’s easy to comprehend and maintain, thus enhancing team collaboration and quick debugging. Moreover, they ensure that your Laravel application stays high in performance and maintainability. However, remember, design patterns are here as helpful friends, not hardbound rules. Always evaluate your application’s unique needs before implementing them.

What are some common best practices for Laravel development?

There’s indeed a hamper full of Laravel best practices that developers can follow to make their Laravel journey smoother:

  1. Use the latest Laravel version: It offers improved functionalities, advanced features, heightened security and showcases the best Laravel offers.
  2. Adhere to PSR coding standards: They unify the formatting of your PHP code, making it consistent, readable, and less error-prone.
  3. Use Eloquent ORM for database transactions: It simplifies database operations and ensures smoother data handling.
  4. Use Artisan CLI: It offers numerous helpful commands which can significantly enhance your development speed.
  5. Leverage Laravel’s inbuilt testing function: It provides PHPUnit support out of the box and a php artisan test command that provides additional functionalities.
  6. Use Dependency Injection: Laravel’s service container makes it incredibly easy to manage class dependencies and perform dependency injection.
  7. Always Validate Data: Laravel provides several different ways to validate your data. Using Laravel’s Validation (either using Request class or validates function) ensures that only correct and consistent data enters your application.

Employing these Laravel best practices guarantees a high standard in your future Laravel applications.

How do SOLID principles apply in Laravel?

SOLID principles are coding standards in Laravel that enable developers to write clean and efficient code. Here’s how they apply:

  1. Single Responsibility Principle (SRP): Every Laravel class should have a single responsibility, a single reason to change. This keeps the code cleaner and more professional.
  2. Open/Closed Principle (OCP): Laravel classes should be open for extension but closed for modification. This makes your Laravel application easily scalable.
  3. Liskov Substitution Principle (LSP): Derived classes must be substitutable for their base classes without causing any issues. This ensures that Laravel developers can use inheritance without breaking the functionality.
  4. Interface Segregation Principle (ISP): Instead of one general-purpose interface, many specific ones are used in Laravel.
  5. Dependency Inversion Principle (DIP): High-level Laravel’s modules aren’t dependent on low-level ones. Instead, all modules rely on abstractions. This supports decoupling in Laravel.

Applying SOLID principles in Laravel is indeed an investment to garner long-term dividends. Designs created based on the SOLID principles are easier to understand, maintain, and extend, transforming your Laravel’s projects from good to exceptional.

What are some security best practices for Laravel applications?

Securing your Laravel applications is as crucial as developing them. A few valuable security practices include:

  1. Always Validate and Sanitize Data: Never trust user inputs. Always validate the incoming data using Laravel validation rules or custom rules. Sanitize them wherever necessary.
  2. Use Laravel’s Built-In Authentication and Authorization: It provides an excellent, easy-to-implement authentication and authorization system which is mature and tested.
  3. Hide Sensitive Information in .env: Store sensitive information such as API keys, database passwords, configuration variables in .env file instead of the codebase.
  4. Use Laravel’s CSRF Protection: It includes an in-built CSRF (cross-site request forgery) protection, a security measure that prevents unauthorized commands from being transmitted from a user that the web application trusts.
  5. Always Hash Passwords: Never store plain-text passwords. Laravel’s bcrypt or Argon2 hashing functions should be used to hash passwords before storing them into the database.
  6. Keep Laravel and its Packages Updated: Each new version of Laravel and its packages comes with fixes for known vulnerabilities. So always keep them updated.
  7. Use Laravel Middleware: Middleware offers a convenient method for filtering HTTP requests entering your application. Use them to authenticate users, limitaccess to different parts of your application, sanitize inputs and outputs, and maintain application security.
  8. Secure Against SQL Injection: Laravel’s query builder uses PDO parameter binding to protect your application against SQL injection.
  9. Secure Laravel API: Use it Passport or Sanctum to secure your API endpoints.

Remember, security is not a one-time event but an ongoing process. Constant vigilance and regular updates are necessary to keep your Laravel’s applications safe.

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